Friday, August 28, 2020

History of the Guidance Movement Essay

Profession guiding was first presented in the mid 1900 as professional advising it was utilized as a way to end destitution during when society was in turmoil over a demising economy. â€Å"This new calling was depicted by students of history as a â€Å"progressive social change development planned for annihilating destitution and unsatisfactory day to day environments produced by the quick industrialization and ensuing relocation of individuals to major urban focuses at the turn of the twentieth century (Whiteley, 1984, p. 2).† During this time the quantity of guides was insignificant and the advising program was still in its formative stages. Blunt Parsons, who is known as the dad of directing was a backer for the privileges of the oppressed who were being misused by new enterprises. Parsons made the Bureau of Vocational Guidance and create logical procedure to assist individuals with picking professions. His speculations were established in first improving working conditio ns, at that point concentrating on the individual workers’ needs. He started the professional direction development in the mid 1900. In 1905 he and his partner Ralph Albertson established the Breadwinner’s Institute in Boston. The foundation offered courses to the working poor to assist them with accomplishing abilities to prepare them for the new business. Parson’s deal with professional direction grouped the reality distinguished the reason and made the determinations around a few issues relating to reasonableness of individuals for various workplaces. The direction development rose during the adjustment in the American economy the immense decrease of horticultural employments is the thing that set it moving. The individuals who once flourished in this industry would now be over taken by the rise of innovation. Expanding urbanization of the nation, and the calls for administrations to meet this household relocation design, all to retool the new mechanical economy achieved by the modern transformation. This made an incredible relocation the United States which thusly called for professional direction. Albeit Frank Parson is credited as the dad of the development other like mindedâ people including teachers, financial expert, legal counselors, priests, therapist and social laborers would before long join the development and were prepared to propel the reason for professional direction as a way to impact social equity. These individual would advocate for the making of administrative organizations to help manage the economy. The funda mental reason for the direction development was to improve the lives of societies’ generally defenseless while demonstrating admiration to their privileges as people giving them the important aptitudes and apparatuses should be gainful inside their networks. Therefore children’s help social orders were made, adolescent courts set up, work laws authorized, instructive changes established and out of this the professional direction development was conceived. Parson replacement Meyer Bloomfield was likewise instrumental in the direction development. He was resolved to propel the reason by making collusions with neighborhood and national experts. Bloomfield help start the council that would proceed to design the primary National Conference on Vocational Guidance. The Conference was held in November of 1910. It was at this show the plan to execute professional directing in schools would emerge. During this time countless youngsters where leaving school to go to work without the important information about the universe of work As Bloomfield put it â€Å"young individuals are unguided, ill-equipped and clueless (Brewer 1942).† These gatherings would proceed to be held yearly and out of them would come the National Vocation Guidance Association which was made in 1913 (Brewer 1942). Now everything was set up for the advising calling to thrive. Over the most recent a long time since the underlying beginning of the direction development mu ch has been cultivated but much stays to be finished. The direction development rose out of a turbulent period and today vocation advancement experts are confronting difficulties that reflect those of the past. Crafted by the forerunners have helped prepared the new age experts to all the more likely help the individuals who are still generally powerless in the public eye. In light of past commitment, we proceed to walk and make exceptional grinders in the calling. Over the most recent 50 years vocation improvement has been altered by innovativeness and advancement, brought by various experts. Vocation direction keeps on advancing as society changes and therefore today’s profession proficient are better prepared to help the customers they serve. Straight to the point Parson unmistakably states in his own book the significance of direction â€Å" Noâ step throughout everyday life, except if it be the decision of a spouse or wife, is increasingly significant that the decision of a job. This imperative issue ought to be tackled in a cautious logical manner with due respect to each person’s aptitudes capacities aspirations assets and impediments, and the relations of these components to the state of accomplishment in various enterprises (page3).† References Brewer, J.M. (1942). History of Vocational Guidance: Orgins and Early Development. New York: Harper& Brothers Whiteley, J. M. (1984). Directing Psychology: A verifiable point of view. Schenectady, NY: Character Research. Parsons, F. (1909). Picking an occupation. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Pope, M. (). A Brief History of Career Counseling in the United States. The Career Development Quarterly, 48, 194-211.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Literature review on Critical and Reflective learning

Writing survey on Critical and Reflective learning The accompanying writing survey will concentrate on the idea of basic and intelligent learning. Basic and intelligent learning is utilized the world over in different scholastic organizations and in proficient practice. Right off the bat it would be basic that basic reflection is characterized. Following on from this a conversation will occur around the different structures and hypotheses offered by different scholars regarding the matter. At last a basic survey of the basic reasoning which underlies a great part of the approach making process in Ireland will attempt. There are different definitions used to clarify the procedure of basic reflection. At a fundamental level, basic reflection (CR) happens when and singular inquiries either their own thoughts or the thoughts of another. Anyway as Van Woerkom (2010) recommends there are a wide range of ways of thinking on what is engaged with the basic reflection process. For instance the ideological type of basic reflection would concentrate on testing and addressing predominant or out of line belief systems. The psychoanalytical school of CR is centered more around the individual and includes the reframing of individual issues or issues. The systematic model of CR is the procedure of intellectually investigating contentions in the desire for managing ones convictions or activities. At long last the realist constructivism school of CR identifies with the assessment of different types of data trying to give an answer, while simultaneously perceiving that the arrangement itself is available to additiona lly addressing (Van Woerkom, 2010). What appears glaringly evident from these definitions is the way that the scrutinizing and impression of an apparent reality at both a cultural and individual level are key in each procedure. Moreover it appears to be obvious that the issues that each school is tending to would all be able to affect upon each other. For example it could be contended that the mental prosperity of an individual could be incredibly affected by the predominant belief system inside a general public. Tending to just the mental issues with the psychoanalytical methodology may demonstrate unbeneficial, if cultural impacts causing mental pain are not tended to. Different scholars have analyzed the basic reflection process on an a lot further level. Dewey in ((1933, in Boud et al,1994)suggests that reflection is the procedure of an individual recovering their experience, contemplating it and surveying it. He accepted that reflection was started by an internal anxiety brought about by an individual getting frustrated with their present reality. Reflection may likewise be impelled by a positive encounter. The individual may wish to realize what worked in the positive experience, so as to rehash the conduct that achieved the positive experience. Deweys principle center was revolved around the idea that reflection is a profoundly normal exercise which is situated in a proof put together methodology which centered with respect to aptitudes and mentalities. Anyway as different creators propose Deweys center around abilities and perspectives is constrained and neglects to take into consideration the full of feeling (enthusiastic) component associated with the learning procedure ( Boud et al, 1994, Rawson, 2000). Another constraining pa rt of Deweys hypothesis was the assumption that one would initially need to commit an error so as to gain from it. Kolb Fry (1975) accepted that for powerful figuring out how to happen the student would need to finish a pattern of learning, separated into four phases: Concrete understanding, perception and reflection, shaping dynamic ideas, testing them in new circumstances. Generally, an individual starts the learning procedure by getting associated with another experience, which they at that point ponder inside so as to understand the experience. The individual at that point speculates about various hypotheses and afterward applies such hypotheses in new circumstances. It ought to be noticed that an individual may begin in any stage and switch between these stages. Furthermore, numerous students may just utilize two of the stages, contingent on their learning style (Kolb Fry 1975 ). Donald Schon (1995) has based upon Deweys idea by presenting twofold circled learning. He recommended that most of learning in regular day to day existence happened at a level where people utilized past held qualities and suppositions to advise their current activity (single circled learning). Anyway Double Looped learning includes a more profound degree of reflection where people question these qualities and suspicions and subject them to basic examination. . Agryis (1999) utilizes a similarity of how an indoor regulator reacts to room temperature by turning on the warmth if the room gets to cold and turning it off when it gets the opportunity to warm. The indoor regulator reacts by getting signals from the room temperature. He fought this compared to an individual accepting positive or negative signals about their activities and afterward changing their activities (Single circle learning). Returning to the indoor regulator similarity, twofold circled learning would pose the inquiry , why the room got excessively hot or cold in any case. The equivalent goes for people when they question the basic presumptions which educated their activities in any case. Such learning isn't constrained to the individual and such learning could be applied to associations and society (Agryis, 1999), Anyway as Rawson (2000) proposes, numerous foundations appear to regard acumen as supreme and dont take into account the scrutinizing fundamental in the basic reflection process. He proceeds to recommend that society chips away at a premise of having control over, instead of intensity with. He accepted that such a methodology was apparent in numerous instructive organizations. He advocates the thought of figuring out how to realize where the importance of different parts of information kept on being addressed and tested. Rawson contends that information is certifiably not a last item and battles that the significance and understanding procedure is a higher priority than the final result. His examination is firmly connected with the lessons of Paulo Friere. Frieres (1998) CR hypothesis was established immovably in the ideological way of thinking. He accepted the instructive framework served to recreate the norm which was affected by the prevailing ideological talk. He was of the conclusion that teachers should shake things up through moving understudies to scrutinize the predominant talk, which he accepted served to duplicate disparities. He focused on the significance of discourse inside the training framework, as he accepted without exchange; genuine instruction couldn't occur. Snares (1994) catches the thought of instruction without discourse when she discusses her experience as an undergrad and graduate understudy. She recommends that most of speakers utilized the homeroom as a road to apply their perspective on the world upon understudies. Friere (1998) didn't advocate a non mandate way to deal with instruction, anyway he stressed it ought to be the procedure and not the understudy that ought to be coordinated. Friere (1998) percei ved that every understudy had their own exceptional beneficial experience and battled that the understudies experience was priceless in the learning experience. Basically Friere (1998) was of the conclusion that training was increasingly about empowering understudies to address and challenge the usually held information inside society. Meizrow (1994) likewise talked about appearance regarding change. Mezirow (1994) portrayed intelligent learning as a procedure in which the student needs to consider or rethink certain suspicions they may hold about themselves or the world. He contended that the best reflection happened when the student finds their presumptions to be somehow or another debilitated. It makes the student take a gander at reasons why their presumptions have made them arrive at choices or to respond with a particular goal in mind and to possibly reexamine their suspicions. He clarified that when the student acknowledges that their past suspicions may have been inaccurate they have made a transformative space and inside that space they can be available to taking part in freshly discovered information. This, he accepts, can prompt a more profound degree of intelligent practice. As referenced before feelings can have a significant impact in such a procedure Boud et al (1994) recommend that past encounters can incredibly decide a people capacity to learn in new circumstances. On the off chance that learning was just focused in the exchange of information starting with one individual then onto the next, learning would be a smooth event and every individual would take in information with insignificant trouble. Anyway feelings, for example, uneasiness can cause troubles for the individuals who are taking an interest in new learning encounters. Most of people will encounter nerves when confronted with new learning. Anyway for some the nervousness can be overpowering and profoundly influence the learning procedure. So how people learn is incredibly affected by feeling (Boud et al, 1994). All in all it tends to be seen that there are numerous regions of both individual and cultural life which could profit by the procedure of basic reflection. The entire thought of figuring out how to learn is by all accounts a methodology which energizes free and self-coordinated learning. While there are numerous ways of thinking on the procedure of CR, they all appear be aimed at scrutinizing the basic suppositions and talks which illuminate both individual and cultural activities. It appears glaringly evident from the different readings that basic reflection is regularly disapproved of as something which agitates the state of affairs of associations. Reflection The subject that I have decided to ponder is the way the Irish society keeps on applying past answers for present issues. On the off chance that we look to the ongoing downturn plainly the Irish government keep on adopting the strategy of advancing rivalry and neo liberal approaches as an answer for the current monetary conditions. As Coulter Coleman (2003) contend the prevailing talk in Irish society recommends thatâ the economy is the mecha

Friday, August 21, 2020

Human Resource Management at Camair-Co Assignment

Human Resource Management at Camair-Co - Assignment Example The expectation of this investigation is human asset the board as the field of the board inside an association where the HR or the workers are dealt with or considered for their ideal use for the company’s destinations just as furnishing them with government assistance administrations. Along these lines the designs for the associations and the HR the executives are fundamentally connected with one another and it is the duty of the HR administrator to care for the obligations of the HR group towards their proficient exhibitions for the accomplishment of the authoritative achievement. The hugeness of the HR the executives lies in its combination with the business arrangements of an association, the best way where they can fit into one another, its relationship with the hierarchical morals, culture and qualities, its devotion towards accomplishing the authoritative destinations, following fitting representatives strategies and deciding a reasonable association of the HR in the co nveyance of their associations. Accordingly the job of the HR the executives assumes a noteworthy job in the productive and powerful exhibitions of the representatives endeavoring to inspire them and keeping up associations with them for a definitive achievement of an association. The general investigation would mirror the connection of the HR the board of the association and its noteworthy effects on the morals, culture, and exhibitions of the association and how the organization keeps its situation up in the serious condition. 2. Camair-Co: A Brief Portrait: Camair-Co is a carrier organization built up in the Republic of Cameroon hoping to give universal measures of aircraft benefits just as improved aircraft foundations. The Transport Ministry of Cameroon is responsible for directing the specialized turn of events and tasks of the organization and the Ministry of Finance caring for the budgetary parts of the organization. Any exercises according to the air transport are given by the organization productively to its clients. The organization has effectively evolved from the association of the State of Cameroon and the Consulting gathering of Lufthansa (History, 2011). The group of experts shaping the HR in the organization includes both nearby and outside abilities and mastery. The way of life and estimations of the organization are profoundly kept up and the worker relations are thought of

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Hidden Truth About Topic Presentation Ideas

The Hidden Truth About Topic Presentation Ideas The photographs and the text work with each other to provide the presentation an enjoyable retro look. You'll observe a message, asking if you'd like to conserve the slide timings. You may use images, charts, graphs, and such. If you are interested in an easy laugh, gifs are the best way to go. If You Read Nothing Else Today, Read This Report on Topic Presentation Ideas Folks frequently have a thought of what a public speaker should look like and how they ought to act. You could say, I want to answer each one of your questions but because I know other individuals have questions as well I would like to focus on that very first point. There's no emotional attachment, actually the homeowner ought to be relieved to do away with the property. There's no sense in learning new, fascinating data in the event you can't find out how to utilize it to your benefit. The Weekend Away is an excellent case of design layering. Design plays a significant part in developing a captivating presentation. A bit more development could allow it to be much easier to use. While the plan is attractive, it is not busy. It's also simple to change the CSS to add your own effects I was able to bring a rudimentary notes facility doing nothing but that. Let's take a better look at templates. Ok, I Think I Understand Topic Presentation Ideas, Now Tell Me About Topic Presentation Ideas! Naturally, you can even anticipate some fantastic takeaways about marketing and sales from the advertising guru himself. Ultimately, assign your finest speakers to every one of your topics to be sure every idea becomes brilliant representation. If you bore your audience right from the beginning, there's very little chance your message will effectively get across. A lot of things can go wrong just prior to a presentation, and they probably will, unless you're organized. Culture shock may have a beneficial and negative connotation. Naturally, there's more than 1 factor that contributes to an excellent SlideShare presentation. It is crucial that you grab the audience's attention from the very start. Broadly speaking, a friendly audience will probably accept an early assertion of your primary point, followed by supportive information. Topic Presentation Ideas - the Conspiracy From time to time, it is worth it to look beyond to other presentation platforms besides PowerPoint to locate unique templates, like Prezi. If you'd like to find some more info about ways to use the app go through our Google Slides tutorial. You don't need to use each tool that PowerPoint supplies you with. If you produce a presentation not just for yourself but for a group, Google Slides allows all of you to take part in the creation procedure. The completely free presentation download can be found in ppt format. Be certain that you're only using videos in your presentation in order to add value. Wonderful presentations highlight problems, then offer clear instruction on how to repair them. There are a few great totally free alternatives that you can make an outstanding presentation with as well. Things You Should Know About Topic Presentation Ideas Brand recognition is extremely important, particularly for businesses operating in very competitive industries. The great thing about the interior page design makes it less difficult for your client to value your advertising plan. Poor design is obviouseven to viewers with no design training in any way. The interior design makes it exceptionally simple for your customers to understand your promotion plan. The Topic Presentation Ideas Game Your audience is going to have more fun, and you'll see much better energy, and better results! Setting the right context at the start of the meeting will help you save you a good deal of agony in the future. At any time you believe your presentation starts to receive somewhat boring or predictable, attempt to incorporate something which wakes people up. A presentation that tells a story is always a great example that everybody should follow.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Online Child Sexual Abuse Is The Case Of Michael Dean Ross

Introduction There is an issue with the evolution of technology and how it is implemented for online child sexual abuse that needs to be addressed. Traditionally, offenders would be limited to what they were able to do with a limitation in resources as a specific pool of potential victims. However, technology has opened up new avenues and resources that offenders can use. Online child sexual abuse is a prominent issue as technology is allowing offenders more access to material, better ways to remain hidden, and access to victims that may not have originally been available. One recent example of how technology can be used for the sexual abuse of children is the case of Michael Dean Ross. Online child sexual abuse would be classified as a cybercrime as the crime â€Å"involved a computer and a network, where a computer may or may not have played an instrumental part in the commission of the crime† (Moore, 4). Cybercrimes are generally consists of computer-related activities that are considered illegal and be conducted throughout the global electronic network (Choi, 3). There is a range of illegal activities that are arising concerning this cybercrime, including solicitation and the creation and distribution of child pornography (Seto). The Internet is becoming a popular avenue where 61% of offenders in a study used only the Internet to commit crimes against children (Mitchell, 54). The primary methods that the Internet was utilized were seduction/grooming, child pornographyShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pages vi BRIEF CONTENTS 4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 Human Resource Policies and Practices 543 18 Organizational Change and Stress Management 577 Appendix A Research in Organizational Behavior Comprehensive Cases Indexes Glindex 637 663 616 623 Contents Preface xxii 1 1 Introduction What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills 4 What Managers Do 5 Management Functions 6 †¢ Management Roles 6 †¢ ManagementRead MoreStrategic Human Resource Management View.Pdf Uploaded Successfully133347 Words   |  534 Pages....................................................... 614 UNIVERSAL PRACTICES VS. CONTINGENCY PERSPECTIVES...................................................... 616 EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE: THE CASE FOR UNIVERSAL BEST PRACTICES................................................... 618 EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE: THE CASE FOR THE CONTINGENCY VIEW............................................. 622 SORTING THROUGH THE EVIDENCE....................... 627 SUMMARY......................................................Read MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pages mymanagementlab is an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Read MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesMorin−Jarrell Leadership, Fifth Edition Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy The Art of M A: Merger/Acquisitions/Buyout Guide, Third Edition Reed−Lajoux and others . . . This book was printed on recycled paper. Management Copyright  ©2005 by The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in anyRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesorganisational theory. Whilst their writing is accessible and engaging, their approach is scholarly and serious. It is so easy for students (and indeed others who should know better) to trivialize this very problematic and challenging subject. This is not the case with the present book. This is a book that deserves to achieve a wide readership. Professor Stephen Ackroyd, Lancaster University, UK This new textbook usefully situates organization theory within the scholarly debates on modernism and postmodernismRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 PagesShirley J. Bell, University of Arkansas at Monticello; Phyllis Berger, Diablo Valley College; Kevin Galvin, East Los Angeles College; Jacquelyn Ann Kegley, California State University-Bakersfield; Darryl Mehring, University of Colorado at Denver; Dean J. Nelson, Dutchess Community College; James E. Parejko, Chicago State University; Robert Sessions, Kirkwood Community College; and Stephanie Tucker, California State University Sacramento. Thinking and writing about logical reasoning has been enjoyable

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Current Development in Accounting Thought Accounting Global Market

Question: Discuss about the Current Development in Accounting Thought for Accounting Global Market. Answer: Introduction This paper intends to explain new accounting trends in the global market through the help of ideologies proposed by Australia Accounting Standard Board (AASB) and AUASB. It coins these new regulations with accounting theories that too contribute to defining the accounting scope. It dwells more on the new trends proposed by AASB and AUSB on 4th April 2016. It suggests how the trends can improve production and limit mistakes committed by auditors and accountants while making a financial statement for the periods of trade. Definition of Accounting Accounting is among the branches of business that operate to identify, measure and communicate information for judgments. It is organized in a way to allow for effective decision making by parties concerned in the statements of accounting. It outlines the financial status of an entity about both assets and liabilities inclusive of an entity equity (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). In most occasions, entities and other relevant users do rely on accounting components to determine how far the business has been operating in connection to profits, short term liabilities and long-term liabilities. Investors consult by accounting to make right decisions dictating a business to invest in and the ones not worth enough for investment. (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). Thus it goes with no say that having standardized guidelines on the operation of accounting global can have a complimentary roles to other fields (Collins, McKeith, 2010). Considering the role accounting pl ays in the general business wide scope, it is in demand to define standardized regulations through which certainty of its application is assured. In Australia, drastic changes have been proposed by relevant bodies to ensure that accounting in the country tally with the global requirements projected through new era innovations. AASB and AUSB have proposed various strategies and policies that if well implemented can end the stalemate created by both accountants and auditors. Thus raises questions of reliability and faithfulness of accounts estimates done at every end periods of trade (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). Emerging Trends Proposed by AASB and AUSB In Australia The two Boards have been consulting on how accounting department in the country can emulate global requirements. Among the guidelines deemed necessary are the area of expertise, the mandated roles, specific accounting areas that require attention, connection of stakeholders in the accommodative and coherent way and the challenges (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). To ensure implementation of the new trends, the Boards decided to maximize regulation over companies to ensure efficient and productive application outcome, provide consumers with access to information, lower costs of regulatory practices and appropriate use of new technology to identify risks (Peach, 2016). The new trends that got implemented as at 30th June 2016 are; A) Accounting for Acquisitions of Interests in Joint Operations is a new amendment which concentrates on the joint arrangement where the party acquiring an interest in an operation termed common is known as an inquirer (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016).. Transactions involved in the joint includes business. This joint business should adhere to the following conditions: Ensure use of all business combination accounting principles in Accounting for Acquisitions of Interest in Joint Operation trend (ASSB 3). It too should comply with Australia Accounting Standards apart from the principles conflicting with guidelines of AASB 11. The requirement considers the use of acquisition of additional interests in the joint business is hence giving an inquirer an opportunity to retain a common control of the joint operation. Also, the requirements in the joint operation do only apply to additional interest. Meaning, it does not value a current interest (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). The amendment provides business with disclosure as defined by ASSB 3 and according to Australian Accounting Standards. B) Classify acceptable depreciation and amortization methods. The amendment prevents or does not allow the use of a revenue-based method of depreciation on property, plant, and equipment (Peach, 2016). It offers guidelines for the use of diminishing balance method on property, plant, and equipment. However, according to AASB 138, a revenue-based method of amortization for intangible assets is not appropriate for use. Though it can apply to the situations: It shall apply if assets considered intangible are defined as a measure through which revenue is measured. This happens if an intangible asset has a contributable ability to achieve revenue threshold. It is too applicable when it can show a high correlation between revenue and economic benefits consumption. C) Agriculture: Bearer Plants. This amendment considers the definition of plants and expects such plants to be accounted for under property, plant, and equipment. This is an expectation that has relation with Property, Plant and Equipment amendment (ASSB 116). D) Equity Method in Separate Financial Statements has an amendment which coins the equity method of accounting with other methods within an entitys investment in subsidiaries, joint venture and associates in separate financial statements entry (CPA Australia, 2012). E) Annual Improvements to Australian Accounting Standards. The amendment in part of Annual Improvements to IFRS. It explains on an entity reclassifies of asset thus not being considered for sale but distribution or vice-versa (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). It outlines when an entity considers an asset is no longer for immediate distribution. It too illustrates when an assets probability of being distributed is not high. It is not appropriate for held for distribution accounting. F) Disclosure Initiative. Disclosure Initiative Amendment includes the following: It provides clarification on materiality requirements. These clarifications are about the potentiality of the detrimental effect of closed information considered useful with immaterial information. It provides clarification on the items to be included in the financial statements like comprehensive profit and loss statement, income statement, and the statement of financial position (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). It adds requirements based on the entitys presentation of subtotals in the financial statements deemed relevant. It provides clarification on entitys flexibility depending on how they present note. However, it emphasizes on the ability of an entity to understand and compare their orders. It eliminates guidelines of no importance to help in identification of significant accounting policy. G) Financial Requirements for Australia Group with a Foreign Parent. The policy amends Investment in Associates and Joint Ventures. It aligns its reporting requirements among Australian to align with foreign policies. It ensures that there is harmony between guidelines in Consolidated Financial Statement and Investment in Associates and Joint Venture for the groups involved. H) Application of Australian Accounting Standards. The country revised its AASB which contained IFRS concepts. It aimed at minimizing wording. IFRS lacked a sentence that identifies the entities and financial reports (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). I) Leases concept in accounting is another emerging trend that tries to force commitment by lessees on leases. This is to get demonstrated in the balance sheet. It has a possibility of affecting companies operating on leases. However, it exempts short-term and low-value leases. It will enhance recognition of leases in the balance sheet by lessees. The concept of lease liability is well demonstrated in the trend. Other accounting new trends are; Procedures of recognizing revenues Referral expenses Tax Accounting Policy judgments on estimates and accounting New revenue and financial instruments standards impact The arrangement of the off-balance sheet (CPA Australia, 2012). Theories of Accounting Theories guiding Accounting are defined and protected by bodies like American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AIPAC) International Accounting Standards (ASB) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The bodies prevent accountants and other users from exploiting accounting principles which work in collaboration with accounting theories. Accounting Principles International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) with other bodies like AICPA and IASB set standards of accounting. The standards among other guidelines defining accounting are operating under the dictation of principles. They include; Revenue recognition; outlines the need to earn revenue first is when it can get recorded in the books account. It is applied depending on the project value, period and methods applied to collect revenues. Recognition of gains and losses; it defines on how accountants should do their gain recordings after realizing loss or losses. Therefore, it prohibits recording of gains a head of loss realization. Cost principle; applicable when a transaction occurs between different parties. It can either be purchase or buying of a product. While recording, cost principle is applied. Full disclosure; different bodies are in tussle to effectively make this principle uniform, however, different opinions from different bodies controlling accounting do deter the objective. Through IFRS, accountants get advised not to disclose to any other person or party without confirmation on the intended investment need. It posits a contradiction in the field of accounting with some accounts providing misleading information or refuse to disclose appropriately (Collins McKeith, 2010. Positive theory of accounting Positive theory of accounting concentrates on what is being done or what has been done. Actual observation on what an entity is doing is the center of reasoning in positive theory of accounting. (Collins McKeith, 2010. It deems irrelevant an argument concentrating on what is supposed to be done or what an entity ought to do. Different stakeholders use positive theory concept to make decisions. Normative theory The theory values what ought to be done not what is being done nor has been. The theory contradicts positive theory reasoning and values accounting concepts by evaluating the need to do what ought to done (Angus, 2012). It is concerned with improvement in the field of accounting through supporting new accounting developments as well as identifying new relevant trends. The two theories are applied simultaneously to ensure that credibility of accounting techniques is maintained. To effectively achieve a dynamic and reliable accounting, the two theories should be applied depending on the market requirements and innovative exploration.. Considering that the market trend composed of innovation and technological changes, the different amendment is done to ensure reliability accounting figures. Major Issues in the New Accounting Trend The major issues in the new accounting trend demonstrated are dwelling around the cash flow. It clearly looks at the cash flow from the start to the end of accounting period (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). Through a financial statement, change in cash is given priority as well as cash equivalents throughout accounting period. Restriction of cash and cash equivalent from the start date to end date is another vital point noted. Also, there is a point on reconciliation of cash and cash flow that are restricted. According to disclosure principle, the change portrayed in the essay contradict the concept of appropriate consideration of the restricted cash (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). Disclosure principle enhances the consistency among other objectives deemed important by entities. Restricted cash and restricted cash equivalent concept in accounting promote consistency as well as creating benefits to users who do depend on such entry in the financial statements. Though, it has some challenges mostly to those who are fond of using cash and cash equivalent to reconcile their statements. In a nutshell, the concepts raised are closure principles which are important in exposing information to relevant users, reconciliation of financial statement and lastly, the cash and equivalent cash restrictions (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). Different Views from Different Respondents Among the respondents I selected, there is no direct linkage on their views concerning new proposed trend on accounting. They differ slightly and concur in a way or other over some issues. To start with is the American Institute of CPA (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). It agrees with the policy restricting cash and cash equivalent. It fairly supports the need to disclose on the financial statement on cash flow from the start time to end time. At the same time, it fairly contradicts the idea of transition closure which argues that it should have classifications (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). It values restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents important in the disclosure principle compared to cash and cash equivalent. This will enhance effective and efficient communication of cash flow and outflow. It considers terminating the need to differentiate unrestricted cash and restricted cash. An idea that aims at creating uniformity in accounting process of mon ey. Funnily enough, it supports disclosure policy on the financial statement and amounts though rejects disclosure on gross transfer. It reiterates on the complexity of such disclosure in the system leading to irrelevancy on the financial statement. Such disclosure leads to confusion scenarios on sources of cash and non-sources of cash. The American Institute of CPA supports the use of retrospective transition in the disclosure principle (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). The company believes that its application enhances amendment effectiveness. However, it disagrees with the proposed dates if implementation, which it says is ambiguous to elaborate for other stakeholders to understand (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). The company accepts the need to modify clarification on the changes. Even though there is a proposal of updating changes on the system, it refutes and illustrates how worthless such actions are. About implementation, The American Institute of CPA criti cs the procedure; contradictory and unprecise (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). It suggests a one-year transition period to accommodate both private and private sectors. Time issuance is an important idea that can play huge in the implementation of the principle proposed. Therefore, there should be an integration period through which cash receipts and cash flows and statement cash flows are adjusted. Hence promote the need to adopt a new principle as early as possible (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). The Accounting Principles Committee of Illinois CPA Society do agree with new proposed policy. It expects the policy to enhance consistency and helps in decision making. Though, it considers reconciliation not well drafted on restricted cash and restricted cash equivalent. The Society appreciates the use of cash and cash equivalent with no restrictions. To its view, forced reconciliation on restricted concepts hinders ability to prepare a flexible and efficient statement. It therefore, advice for a separate entry of cash and cash equivalents from restricted cash and cash equivalent. The company negates the idea proposed concerning the disclosure principle with gross transfers. It believes that it is important to report the acquisition of cash and cash equivalent at end time (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). Comparing the for companies of my survey, they have almost related ideologies towards the new principle and policies, though every company has a way in which it does not support even a single content in the policy. Assumptions under Public Interest Theory, Private Interest Theory, and Capture Theory. Public interest theory calls for a regulation of market operations (Graffikin, 2005). It considers a need to have a body that can step up to control market operations during crisis. Market crisis can happen due to customer exploitation or inequality in production possibilities. It illustrates that intervention prevents market ineffectiveness (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). Private interest theory on other side assumes that market is self-driving. It argues that it is not only important for a market to have intervention from other bodies during crisis but always. Private theory deem firms responsible for their operations thus able to select favorable market situations for their products and services (Australia Accounting Standard Board, 2016). Capture theory assumes that control bodies of the government operates with the motive of helping the general public but not industries themselves. It provides deep analysis on the connection between a regulatory body and industries in operation. References Angus O. Unegbu. (2012). Theories of Accounting: Evolution and Developments, Income- Determination and Diversities in Use. Research Journal of Financial and Accounting. Vol. 5, No. 19 Armstrong, Mark Sappington, David (2006). Regulation, Competition and Liberalization, Journal of Economic Literature, 325-350. Australia Accounting Standard Board (2016). Application of Materiality to Financial Statement. ASIC calls for clarity in reports. (2016, June, 3). Accountants Daily. Baker, C. R (2005). What is the meaning of the public interest Examining the ideology of the American accounting profession, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal. Vol. Pp 690-700. CIMA (2009). Accounting trends in a borderless world. Clarke, F. G Dean K, Oliver (2003).Corporate Collapse, Accounting Regulatory and Ethical Failure, 2nd Ed. Cambridge, CUP. Collins, B. McKeith, J. (2010). Financial Accounting and Reporting. McGraw Hill. Connolly, C. 2008. International Financial Accounting and Reporting Institute of Chartered Accounts in Ireland. CPA Australia. (2012). Accounting Concepts and Principles. Publisher: BPP Learning Media Ltd. Craig D. 2011. Financial Accounting Theory. International Accounting (Part-2), 3rd Ed. Deegan, C. Unerman, J. (2007). Financial Accounting Theory. European edition, McGraw Hill Elliot B Elliot, J. 2007. Financial Accounting and Reporting. FT Prentice Hall, 12th Ed. Hermanson, Edwards and Maher (2010). Accounting Principles: A Business Perspective, Financial Accounting. Joskow, Paul L. 2007. Regulation of Natural Monopolies, in: A.M. Polinsky and S. Shavell (eds.), Handbook of Law and Economics, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishing. Kalpana R. Gopinath R. (2013). Trends and Issues of Human Resource Accounting. Graffikin, (2005). Regulation as Accounting Theory. Accounting and Finance. Working Paper, University of Wollongong. Victor, M. Martin (2008). Sustainable Energy System. Theory of Regulation. MIT Portugal Ogus, Anthony I. 2007. The Relationship between Regulation and Tort Law, Tort and Regulatory Law, Springer, 371-379. Peach, K. (2016). Australia Accounting Standards Board Remi, A., (2006). Advanced Financial Accounting, Second Edition, Lagos Master Stroke Consulting